Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Fourth Ever Room-Temperature Ferromagnetic Element Discovered - Ruthenium

 An international group of researchers has discovered the fourth single element to have unique ferromagnetic properties at room temperature - ruthenium (Ru). Ferromagnetism is the ability for a substance to form permanent magnets or to be attracted to magnets.
 Until this discovery, only three single elements were know to be ferromagnetic at room temperature: iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni). The rare earth element gadolinium (Gd) only gains ferromagnetic properties 8 degrees Celsius below room temperature.
 Using seed layer engineering, the scientists forced the ruthenium particles into a tetragonal phase when the element favoured a hexagonal configuration. This culminated in a magnetization of 148 and 160 emu/cm3 at room temperature and 10 K (minus 263.15 degrees Celsius), respectively.
 “It took us about two years to find a right way to grow this material and validate it,” said  Professor Jian-Ping Wang, from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Minnesota.. “Our work will trigger magnetic research community to look into fundamental aspects of magnetism for many well-known elements.”
 “The ability to manipulate and characterize matter at the atomic scale is the cornerstone of modern information technology,” added co-author Professor Paul Voyles, chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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